Photosynthesis is a biochemical process in which plants, some bacteria, and algae incorporate atmospheric carbon dioxide into the generation of organic molecules, that is, food for themselves. In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide reacts with water to produce oxygen and sugar. From sugar, plants synthesize other organic compounds. Food produced during photosynthesis is used by phototrophs to use as raw materials for the synthesis of complex organic compounds such as proteins, nucleic acid, and polysaccharides. Produced food is utilized by plants themselves. Plants also make the food chain for other organisms such as animals and humans. Research studies showed that increment in atmospheric carbon dioxide up to 1000 ppm increases the yield of plants to
12âˆ’14%. An increment in atmospheric carbon dioxide causes lesser development of stomata that lead to reduced usage of water also decrement in micronutrient concentration in a crop yielding plants. Hence, herbivores need to eat more plant-based food to take the same amount of micronutrients. A high concentration of carbon dioxide also affects the secondary metabolites (flavonoids and phenylpropanoids) concentration. Forests play a major role in carbon fixation. They absorb tons of carbon dioxide per day and also exhale carbon dioxide as a part of their respiration and decomposition of organic compounds. Thus, they maintain the balance of carbon in the Earthâ€™s atmosphere. Phytoplankton present in the oceans also utilizes dissolved carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, thereby increasing the absorption of atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Transportation and Regulation of Carbon dioxide in Humans
Human beings produce 1 kilogram (kg) of carbon dioxide per day. Carbon dioxide is generated during cellular metabolism. Then, it is transported to the lungs by the venous system. Thus, in arteries, the carbon dioxide concentration is low. Â In RBCs, hemoglobin is the prime carbon dioxide and oxygen carrier.. This process is known as the Haldane effect. An increment in the carbon dioxide’s partial pressure leads to the transport of oxygen from the lungs to the tissues by a phenomenon termed as Bohr effect. The pH of the blood is regulated by bicarbonate ions, and it depends upon the respiratory rate of the individual. Shallow breathing leads to respiratory acidosis, whereas a high respiratory rate leads to hyperventilation that can lead to respiratory alkalosis.
Application of Carbon Dioxide in the Food Processing Industry
Carbon dioxide gas is used in the preparation of soda water and other carbonated beverages. In the production of beer and wine, carbon dioxide is produced naturally during the fermentation process. To increase the shelf life of food grains, vegetables, fruits, and meats, the food industry packages the items in high carbon dioxide concentration as it is lethal to bacteria, mold, and insects and does not affect the quality of food products. Preservation of food by using this technique is called modified atmosphere packaging. This process also reduces the rate of ripening of fruits and vegetables by decreasing biochemical and metabolic processes. Modified atmosphere packaging also increases the shelf life of meat products under controlled temperature. It also maintains its texture, color, and flavor for one to two months. High-pressure carbon dioxide treatment is given to pasteurize food products to destroy harmful microorganisms. High-pressure carbon dioxide is also utilized for the precipitation of milk and soy protein. Liquid carbon dioxide is used for chilling rail pantries or trucks before shipping. It also increases the shelf life of the products.
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