Reception: Reception is a process by which the target cell detects the presence of a signal or stimulus which is known as a ligand. The ligand or the signaling molecule can be minute ad water-soluble compounds that can attach to the surface receptors of the cell. These proteins are present across the lipid bilayer of the cell or in the plasma membrane to help the water-soluble ligand components to attach with them. These membrane receptor proteins can transmit the information from the outer portion of the cell to the inner portion of the cell. This happens when the conformation of the cell changes after the binding of the specific ligand molecule. The three major receptors are G-protein coupled receptors, ion channel receptors, and tyrosine kinase receptors. All these receptors play a significant role to enable repair mechanisms, cancer, heart disease, and another disease pathway to bring about immune cell response.
Transduction: Upon the binding of the ligand component to the receptor, the structure or the confirmation of the receptor protein changes to bring about the transduction process. A particular cellular response is the outcome of this converted signal from the receptors. Normally, the transduction happens in a sequence involving changes in several molecules. However, it can also be a one-step process. The components that are involved as intermediates during the transduction process are called relay molecules. Transduction as a multistep pathway comprises the activation of several proteins often by the addition or removal of certain phosphate groups. Sometimes, there is the liberation of small molecules that are known as messengers. The major advantage of a multi-step process is the amplification of the signals. The opportunities to regulate cell communication at different levels are yet another advantage of the multi-step transduction pathway.
Response: The final stage of transduction is the response of the specific cells to the entire transduction pathway. Any cellular function of the body can be generated as a response. It can trigger the cytoskeleton rearrangement or initiate catalysis by an enzyme.
All the above-mentioned three stages are should happen properly, at the appropriate time, and also in synchronization with other molecules to perform several functions in an organism. The response usually takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell or inside the nucleus. Many transduction pathways regulate the transcription of genes inside the nucleus to synthesize proteins.
Local and long-distance cell signaling
Local signaling: In eukaryotic cells, cell communication by direct contact is a type of local signaling. Animal and plant cells possess junctions that link the cytoplasm of the cells with the other cells that are placed adjacent to each other. These attachments enable the signaling molecules present in the cytoplasm of the cells to move between the cells efficiently. In the animal cells, there are certain gap junctions and they utilize cell-cell recognition to perform cell communication between these gap junctions. Similarly, the plant cells are linked by the presence of plasmodesmata. Local signaling is very effective for regulating immune response and embryonic development. In some other types of local signaling, the cell secretes certain secondary messenger molecules that can move up to a shorter distance. However, these components can trigger the adjacent cell to perform a similar action. This enables a group of cells in the vicinity to perform similar functions. Paracrine signaling is the term used to mention the local signaling happening in an animal cell.
Long-distance signaling: In both plant and animal cells, hormones are the molecules that are used for long-distance signaling. Specialized cells are present in animal cells to secrete the hormones and make them travel through the bloodstream to various parts of the animal body. Upon, reaching the target site, they interact with the receptor to generate an outcome. This form of signaling is known as endocrine signaling. In-plant cells, the plant hormones, and plant growth regulators travel across the cells by diffusion by air or gas to enter the target cells.
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