The production and release of T3 and T4 are controlled by the hypothalamus which secretes thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). The TRH causes the anterior pituitary gland to secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) that in turn responsible for stimulating the thyroid gland in order to secrete thyroid hormone. TSH binds with TSHRs located in the thyroid gland. TSHRs are the member of the GPCRs (G-protein coupled proteins) superfamily, and they stimulate intracellular activity. This, in turn, activates the activities of thyroid epithelial cells such as iodine trapping, thyroglobulin synthesis, thyroid peroxidase activity, endocytosis, and hormone release. The production of T3 and T4 is regulated by the negative feedback loop. When the level of T3 and T4 increases, they prevent the release of TRH and TSH, and thus the constant level of thyroid hormone is maintained in the body. This prevents the excess (hyperthyroidism) or low (hypothyroidism) production of thyroid hormone. Cold temperature also stimulates thyroid production to increase the basic metabolic rate (BMR). The increased BMR causes the production of more heat to compensate for the cold temperature and other factors such as stress. During stress, the adrenal gland produces more cortisol which can decrease the amount of TSH released thereby decreasing the amount of thyroid hormone and signs of hypothyroidism may develop.
The membrane of follicular cells has the enzyme peroxidase, which oxidizes the iodide ion and changes the oxidation state of iodine, and converts it into a higher oxidation state. The oxidized form of iodine binds with the thyroglobulin in the follicular cells. The binding of oxidized iodide ion with the thyroglobulin is called organification. The thyroglobulin is released when needed. The follicular cells generate some pseudopodic projections which help in pinocytosis. The receptors for the thyroid hormone are present in the nucleus because it is a lipid hormone. It goes into the nucleus of the cell and initiates the gene transcription in the mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid), which synthesizes new proteins, which in turn promotes thyroid hormone response. The thyroid hormone is responsible for increasing the metabolic rate. It has a cardiovascular effect as it binds to Î²1 receptors present there and increases cardiac output by increasing heart rate and stroke volume. In the brain, it stimulates CNS (central nervous system) development, increased respiration rate by increasing oxygen consumption. Glucose absorption also increases due to increased gluconeogenesis and glycolysis.
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