Metals are materials that have a lustrous appearance. They also have the property to conduct electricity and heat well. They are malleable and ductile. They are important for the functioning of the cells and they occur as trace elements in the cells.
Heavy are those elements that form metals with high atomic weight and high density. High atomic weight also implies a high atomic number. Examples of heavy metals include iron, copper, tin, silver, gold, platinum, and so on.
Heavy metals are essential nutrients for the functioning of the cells such as cobalt, zinc, and iron.
Metals such as ruthenium, silver, and indium are harmless unless they occur in large quantities. Heavy metals such as lead, mercury, and cadmium are poisonous.
The sources of heavy metals include mining, industrial waste, occupational exposure, agricultural runoff, treated timber, and tailings.
The natural source of heavy metals is the earthâ€™s crust. Both natural and anthropogenic sources lead to heavy metals accumulation in the soil.
Weathering of minerals, forest fires, biogenic sources, particles released from vegetation, soil erosion, and volcanic activities are some natural sources that contribute to the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil.
Pesticides, biosolids, smelting of metals, mining, and wood preservatives lead to arsenic accumulation in the soil.
Plastic stabilizers, electroplating, paints, pigments, phosphate fertilizers lead to cadmium accumulation in the soil.
Fly ash, tanneries, and steel industries lead to chromium accumulation in the soil. Silver and gold mining, medical wastes, and coal combustion lead to mercury accumulation in the soil.
Surgical instruments, automobile batteries, kitchen appliances, and effluents lead to nickel accumulation in the soil.
Combustion from fossil fuel with lead, waste from batteries, herbicides, and insecticides lead to accumulation of lead in the soil.
Remediated works include an integrated approach and strategies that help with the removal of heavy metals from the soil.
They include biological methods and â€˜omicsâ€™ methods.
Phytoremediation is a process where plants are used to curb the heavy metals accumulation in the soil using methods such as phytoextraction, phytostabilization, phytovolatilization, and using hyperaccumulator plants.
Microbes such as endophytic bacteria, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), actinobacteria, and fungi are used that consume heavy metals and metabolize them.
Vermiremediation includes the usage of earthworms to remediate the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil.
Metagenomics, proteomics, and metabolomics methods are used to curb the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil.
Other strategies include excavation of soil and moving them to disposal sites, aeration of the soil, and thermal remediation. Surfactant leaching is a method to remediate heavy metals accumulation in the soil.
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