Glyoxysomes contain enzymes for the glyoxylate pathway, which include isocitrate lyase and malate synthase. This glyoxylate is an anaerobic pathway that is occurring in plants and fungi. The main process of the cycle is the conversion of acetyl-CoA to succinate for the formation of carbohydrates. This process utilizes the simple carbon that acts as a carbon source. This whole process occurs only through glyoxysome. These enzymes are common for the Krebs cycle or TCA cycle. Both pathways (glyoxylate cycle and Krebs or TCA cycle) show the same reaction to produce isocitrate from acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate. The pathway allows the plants to utilize the acetyl-CoA molecule that is formed from the fatty acid beta-oxidation to synthesize carbohydrates. The significance of this cycle is it occurs in bacteria when they utilize acetate as a carbon source, and this reaction also acts as a bypass reaction of the Krebs cycle. In the gluconeogenesis pathway, the principle of the gluconeogenesis pathway was a compartment in the single organelle. The complete process involves the three organelles, which include the spherosome, the glyoxysome, and the mitochondrion. The reaction starts with lipid hydrolysis in the spherosome by an enzyme called lipase and produces fatty acids and glycerols. This glycerol directly enters into the sucrose synthesis while the glyoxysome fuses near the spherosome. The fatty acid acts as an energy source; the fatty acid is degraded through beta-oxidation into acetate molecule and bound to the thiol Co-A group where the process enters in the Krebs cycle and finally oxidized into carbon dioxide (CO2) compound. This cycle allows the cells to utilize the energy from the fat molecule.
Distribution and Origin of Glyoxysomes:
The glyoxylate pathway is significant for the growth of cells, mainly on fatty acids or acetate; these cycles act as a source for four-carbon dicarboxylic acid. Microorganism like Euglena, Neurospora, Polytomella, and Chlorella contains â€œglyoxysomeâ€ like particles. The DNA particle that is present in glyoxysomes has the possibility of raising that organelles possess some degree of autonomy that has been reported. These glyoxysomes are mostly similar to the structure of peroxisomes, namely, by budding or fission process. Most of the enzymes are synthesized free and translocated through the membranes of glyoxysomes that are already present in a cell. It is possible that micro-bodies associated with various activities of cell specialization and cellular function can be determined.
Functions of Glyoxysomes:
The main function of glyoxysomes is to convert fatty acids into sugar molecules.
It plays important role in nitrogen fixation (N2) and photorespiration.
The germinating seeds that contain lipids are used for carbohydrate formation; this act as the fuel source for microorganism.
Glyoxysomes contain the enzymes for Î²âˆ’oxidation of fatty acids to produce the acetyl CoA compound.
This glyoxysome is used in the process of gluconeogenesis.
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