Components: Reproductive behavior has components encompassing sexual behavior and maternal behavior. Sexual behavior comprises of precopulatory behavior, copulatory behavior, and postcopulatory behavior. Maternal behavior encompasses periparturient behavior, parturient behavior, and past-parturient behavior.
The factors influencing sexual behavior include display, courtship, postures, and motor activities. These factors are identified to have unity with the coitus for elevating the frequency of fertilization and the rate of pregnancy. The sexual behavior is specific for each species
Precopulatory behavior: The precopulatory behavior is expressed through numerous modes of communication including chemical communication, tactile communication, and auditory communication. The responses to the precopulatory behavior exhibited to the male encompass the Flehmen phenomenon, chin resting behavior, and the response exhibited to the female includes the standing behavior. The Flehmen phenomenon is exhibited by raising the head of the male. It also includes the extension of the neck. The upper lip is also curled along with the opening of the nostrils in the flehmen phenomenon. The tactile communication is presented by the nuzzling of the perineal region. Auditory communication employed includes snorting, bleating, bellowing, and baaing. The olfactory communication is exhibited through the discharge of the pheromones and the secretions from the poll gland. The visual communication in the precopulatory behavior encompasses the reddening and swelling of the perennial region. The tactile communication is performed through rubbing and licking in the perineal area. The motor clues in the pre-copulatory behavior encompass elevated motor activity and crawling.
Copulatory behavior: The protrusion and erection of the penis are considered an important copulatory behavior. The other copulatory behaviors employed by the male include fixation, mounting, dismounting, ejaculation, and intromission. The female copulatory behavior includes the oestrus detection, oestrus pattern in the receptivity by the male. The intromission includes the tightening of the abdominal muscle. The pelvic region is directly contacted between the female and male during the intromission.
Post-copulatory behavior: The animals are identified to exhibit sexual inactivity after copulation. The period after the copulation is called the refractory period, which varies between five minutes to one hour. The frequency of the copulation differs between the breed, species, and period of sexual rest.
Endocrine Signaling of Reproduction:
Numerous hormones are associated with the signaling of the reproductive behavior of the organism such as the mammals. The hormones concerned with reproduction include the placental lactogen, human Chorionic Gonadotrophin, Prostaglandin, oxytocin, progesterone, inhibin, follicle-stimulating hormones, and the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone. Hormone such as androgens is associated with the development of the secondary sexual characters of the male. It is the reason for the formation of the characteristic features of the male and supports the reproductive behavior of the male. This hormone has effects in the regulation of various sexual selection practices employed by the animals in choosing the healthy pair for mating. Estrogen is the hormone coding for the development of the secondary sexual characters in the female. The increased concentration of this hormone enables the formation of various female attributes and the action of this hormone also aids in the selection of the perfect pair for reproduction.
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