Structure of hemoglobin:
Blood is the major fluid connective tissue of an organism. The red color of the blood is due to the existence of the pigment called hemoglobin (Hb). It is the building block of four subunits (tetrameric protein) of a protein chain called globin connected with a porphyrin ring (heme) containing iron. Among the total hemoglobin maximum part of 95% is occupied by the globin protein and the remaining is the iron content. The structure of hemoglobin is configured with two alpha (Î±1 and Î±2) and two beta (Î²1 andÎ²2) polypeptide chains which contain 141 and 146 amino acids respectively. The heme constitutes four pyrrole units and the iron present in it gets associated with the nitrogen atom of the amino acid histidine and fixed to the polypeptide chain by linking itself with the amino acid phenylalanine. The free space in the 6th position of the ferrous ion is made available for the binding of oxygen molecules. The protein network is associated with the heme group of hemoglobin via hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. The quaternary structure of hemoglobin is analyzed through X-ray techniques in which the array of tetrameric protein chains of hemoglobin differs according to the binding of oxygen to it. When oxygen gets attached to the ferrous group of hemoglobin during respiration, it turns into a narrow shape. Thus it is the reverse process of breathing by contracting when oxygen binds with the heme and expands during its release. The methemoglobin is formed by the oxidation of iron from the ferrous state into the ferric state in the Hb along with the reduction in the oxygen-binding capability. Hence the prevention of autooxidation is carried out by maintaining the iron in the heme group with the ferrous state.
The blood cells which constitute RBC and WBC are originated from the hematopoietic stem cell. The prime site for hematopoiesis to takes place is the bone marrow. These stem cells get distinguished into different cell types and they undergo self-regeneration to maintain the level of existence during cell proliferation. It is a fundamental process that produces blood cells that starts from the embryonic development especially the yolk sac (progenitor cells) and extends up to adulthood to generate and rejuvenate the blood system. Certainly, in humans through flow cytometry techniques it is been identified that the embryonic stem cells get differentiated primarily into erythroid cells which restrain embryonic hemoglobin.
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