Ploitical Side Effects of Antiretroviral Drugs

Treatment for HIV/AIDS was not available in earlier times but recent improvement in the treatment procedure of HIV/AIDS and advent of antiretroviral therapy and medicines have made it possible for medical care to effectively help individuals with HIV/AIDS ameliorate their immunity. Antiretroviral therapy and drugs are the main treatment therapies for HIV/AIDS which are found to be effective in the treatment of HIV and are available worldwide. Antiretroviral drugs are found to be effective but they are not free of side effects ranging from mild to severe to life threatening. Short-term side effects include fatigue, muscle pain, vomiting, headache, dizziness, difficulty in sleeping, diarrhea, and nausea. These are immediate side effects that occur after taking the medicine. Potential long-term side effects found are depression, insomnia, heart disease, kidney damage, liver damage, nerve damage, osteoporosis, and diabetes. Side effects of antiretroviral drugs get worse when it is taken for a long period. Doctors therefore screen the health of the individual who is prescribed with antiretroviral drugs for the first time. This screening is done once the individual starts taking the medication for a month or two. Not every individual taking antiretroviral drug experiences side effects. After screening the effect of medicine in the body of the individual, the doctor decides to either continue the medication in case of no side effects shown or decides to change the drug and prescribe another drug which would fit the individual better, and further screening is done to observe the side effects of the new drug.

Types of Antiretroviral Drugs:
Antiretroviral drugs are a group of drugs that are usually prescribed in combination. There are many categories of antiretroviral drugs. One of the groups of antiretroviral drugs is nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). NRTIs block the action of viral reverse transcriptase, an enzyme which affects the body after being infected by HIV. Some of the common NRTIs are tenofovir, stavudine, lamivudine, emtricitabine, and zidovudine. Another class of drugs which work similar to NRTIs is non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). The only difference between NRTIs and NNRTIs is that NNRTIs act on a different site of the enzyme. Examples of NNRTIs are efavirenz, nevirapine, delavirdine, etravirine, doravirine, rilpivirine, and so on. Protease inhibitors are those classes of antiretroviral drugs which impede HIV protease viral enzymes. Types of protease inhibitors are darunavir, indinavir, ritonavir, tipranavir, saquinavir, lopinavir, fosamprenavir, and atazanavir. Entry inhibitors are those drugs which inhibit the virus from entering the targeted cells. Entry inhibitors are often prescribed by the medical experts only when other antiretroviral drugs are unsuccessful. Entry inhibitors prevent the virus from penetrating the immunity cells. These drugs are not capable of creating antibodies and thus function only to prevent them from entering the immune cells.

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Antiretroviral Therapy:
Antiretroviral therapy consists of a course of therapy in combination with antiretroviral drugs which the medical experts prescribe. Once the individual starts taking the drugs, the medical experts keep the individual under observation with follow-up checkups after an interval of every 3, 6, or 12 months depending on the intensity of the disease. In case of AIDS, a huge reduction of disease is seen when ART is employed as a potential treatment, especially, in the early stage of detection. ART is also capable of reducing transmission of HIV.

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