Pathology of the Ears and Hearin

The ear is the most progressive and sensitive organs of the human body. The main functions of the ears involve hearing and maintenance of body balance. It comprises three parts namely the outer, middle, and inner ear. The outer ear consists of the pinna, which is an outer fleshy structure that forms a funnel-like shape to direct the sound into the outer auditory canal, from where it is then passed on to the middle ear. The middle ear comprises the tympanic cavity (eardrum) and small bones attached to it, known as ossicles and stapes. When the sound waves enter the middle ear, the eardrum vibrates. The vibrations are passed on to the innermost part of the ear. The inner ear comprises a spiral structure called the cochlea, which converts the incoming vibrations into electrical signals, which are transferred to the brain through the inner auditory nerve. The ears maintain body balance with the help of the eustachian tube and vestibular nerve present in the middle ear. The eustachian tube regulates the air pressure in the middle ear, which provides a sense of balance. Due to the complexity of anatomy, ears are susceptible to infections, injuries, and other trauma of sounds. Hence, ear diseases and disorders are prevalent in all ages of human beings including infants, children, and older people. Hearing loss is one of the most common effects of ear diseases.

The common symptoms include mild pain or discomfort, pressure, and pus-like fluid drains from the ears and sometimes leads to hearing impairment.

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Some of the typical ear infections are as follows:

Otitis media: It is an ear infection that affects the middle ear, which is caused due to the blockage and swelling of the eustachian tube. The Eustachian tube blockage results in the trapping of fluid in the middle ear, which is suitable for the growth of various pathogens. It is blocked due to common cold, sinuses, allergies, excess mucus, swollen adenoids, and changes in air pressure.

Otitis externa: It is the inflammation of the outer ear canal, caused due to bacterial or viral infections. The leading cause includes exposure to unclean water or persistent entry of water into the ear canal. Fanatical cleaning of the ear can also damage the ear canal.

Infectious myringitis: Inflammation of the eardrum, which is caused due to a bacterial infection.

Acute mastoiditis: It is an infection in the mastoid bone of the ear. Acute otitis media can cause mastoiditis, leading to redness and swelling of the bone followed by fever.

Pathology of Hearing Disorders
Hearing impairment can result from an underlying disease, genetic condition, or simply as a result of the family inheritance. The common symptoms include vertigo (a sensation of swinging and loss of balance), spinning sensation, ringing vibration in ears, headache, nausea, and dizziness. Some of the typical hearing loss disorders in adults include:

Meniere’s disease: It is a chronic disease that develops in the inner ear. It can also result from fluid buildup in the inner ear tubes, bacterial infection, or allergies.

Otosclerosis: It is a rare condition that occurs in the middle ear. It happens due to abnormal growth of an ear bone called stapes. Due to abnormal growth of bone, the skeletal tissue around the bone also develops abnormally, making the bone stiff. For the perception of sound, the bone has to vibrate; however, it cannot do so, which results in hearing loss.

Presbycusis: It is an age-linked hearing disorder due to degeneration of the ear cells located in the inner ear with old age. It is usually symmetrical and happens to both ears at the same time. However, it can also result from continuous exposure to noise pollution, medication, or genetic inheritance.

Acoustic neuroma: It is a genetic disorder that leads to forming a non-cancerous tumor on the vestibular nerve. It is caused due to malfunctioning of chromosome 22 and leads to hearing impairment and vertigo.

Tinnitus: A continuous buzzing sensation or ringing in the ear is caused due to abnormal muscle spasms in the middle ear and auditory canal. In addition, head injuries, exposure to loud noises, Meniere’s disease, and ear infections can lead to tinnitus.

Anacusis or deafness: It can either be partial or complete, and the person has difficulty in hearing or cannot hear at all. It is usually congenital and caused due to a genetic defect. However, a loud noise trauma or illness can also cause deafness.


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