Genetic variation is referred to as the diversity in genetic sequences among the individual or populations. The variation which occurs in the whole species is known as genetic diversity. The variation in the gene or DNA segment is called an allele. Genetic variation allows evolutionary changes that are necessary for natural selection. It leads to the formation of the new individual with genetic diversity and causes the organisms to adapt themselves to the particular environment and transfer the information to the next generation via genes. The sources which cause genetic variation are mutation, recombination, gene duplication, and random fertilization. The mutation is considered as the major source of genetic variation which produces a new allele or gene on a chromosome diverged from the parent genome. Mutation takes place by errors during replication, exposure to mutagens or ionizing radiations, leads to the changes in the DNA sequence of the chromosome itself. There are different types of mutation which occur at the allele of the gene or whole chromosomes.
The mutation is the major source of variation in the genome of an organism, causing changes in the nucleotides sequences of chromosomal DNA. Mutations are caused by exposure of genetic material to environmental factors known as mutagens. The radiations like ultraviolet rays, gamma rays, infectious agents, and chemical mutagens are the factors that induce mutation. Most organisms have neutral effects of mutation. Based on its effects they are either beneficial or harmful;
Beneficial Mutations that have positive effects on organisms are called beneficial. This causes the formation of new combinations of genes that translate into new proteins responsible for the organisms to adapt themselves to the environmental changes. This is essential for the occurrence of evolution by natural selection. It leads to the arrival of new organisms with increased fitness for survival and reproduction. For example, mutational changes in several bacteria cause an increase in their resistance to grow in presence of an antibiotic and thus lead to the formation of resistant strains towards antibiotics. In Italy, the people are protected from developing atherosclerosis (fats deposits in blood vessels, hinders blood flow) by exclusive mutation.
Harmful Mutations are the occurrence of random changes in the DNA sequence that in turn affects the protein synthesis and its function either partially or completely. This cause harmful effect like genetic disorders (mutation in a single gene or few) and cancers (abnormal cell growth due to mutation). A genetic disorder is an inherited disorder and can be prevented its transfer from one generation to another by testing before birth (prenatal). The chromosomal abnormalities are tested in the fetus by the surrounding fluid called amniocentesis. A genetic disorder can be treated by inserting the new normal gene by replacing the mutated gene called gene therapy.
Types of mutation:
Based on cell types involved, the mutation is broadly classified into;
Germline mutation – alteration occurs in the germ cells (sperm and ovum) and this mutation can be transferred to the progeny.
Somatic mutation â€“ alteration occurs in the somatic tissues (body chromosomes) and it is not transmitted to the offspring. On basis of their origin, mutations can be of two types:
Spontaneous mutation (gene mutation) is a sudden change, which occurs spontaneously during DNA replication, errors in the recombination process, and transposable elements.
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