Natural selection allows variation among the population by making different organisms adapt to changing surroundings. Genes that survive in extreme conditions make that particular fit to survive else lead to its extinction. Certain traits are influenced and evolve along with changing the environment. For example, giraffes have a long neck as their phenotypic trait. However, changing the environmental crisis has resulted in large-scale deforestation. Due to the declining availability of tall trees, giraffe finds it difficult to consume food. The susceptibility of the population modifies with a change in the climate and diseases. This will raise with a decrease in genetic diversity.
Large populations maintain genetic material that has higher genetic diversity. However, diversity begins in small populations, and the changes happening are called microevolution. Random alteration taking place in the relative allele frequencies in a small level of population is called genetic drift. Since the changes occur by chance, genetic drift is a major contributor to microevolution. Genetic drift occurs at every generation and it is a continuous evolution process. When parents produce a small number of offspring, frequencies of an allele in the offspring may change from that of the parents. Due to such genetic variations by chance, frequencies of allele drifts over some time. This chance also determines whether the offspring survive and reproduce. Unlike natural selection, changes in genetic drift are not based on environmental and adaptive factors. Therefore, the changes can be beneficial, harmful, or neutral. However, there are debates on genetic drift being more important as an agent of microevolution than natural selection. Two special criteria are there for the occurrence of genetic drift. These are the founder effect and bottleneck effect. The bottleneck effect happens if there is a sudden reduction in the population. This can occur as a result of a natural calamity like epidemics and forest fire. Frequencies of alleles of the survivors can be unique from the original population by chance. The founder effect happens if some of the individuals mingle with a new population. Frequencies of alleles of the original population or founders might be distinguished or unique from frequencies of alleles of the group of the population they came from.
Mutation and gene flow
Random mutations create genetic variation. A mutation can be an addition or deletion to the pool of genes. Besides, as mentioned above, the sustenance of this gene is based on drift and natural selection. A useful mutation has more probability to be passed on to generations and hence can come with a long-term positive effect. Mutation rates vary across different species, that is, larger populations mutate at greater rates than the smaller populations. Gene flow occurs as a result of migration. There is a movement of genetic material when a species travels from one location to another. For example, Anopheles gambiae African mosquitoes acquired an insecticide-resistant mutation. When A. gambiae mosquitoes migrated to a population of Anopheles coluzziin mosquitoes, they transferred beneficial resistance genes to the new population.
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