Exchange of materials from the blood to the capillaries:
The main aim of the circulatory system is to transport the nutrients, gases, and wastes to and from the cells and tissues of the body. Capillaries are the structures that can allow only small molecules to pass through it. This diffusion happens due to a differential gradient between the blood and the interstitial fluid, the molecules move from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
Large molecules which are lipid-insoluble substances cross the membranes of the capillaries. These substances first undergo endocytosis (the substance that has to be carried to the inside of the cell is surrounded by a cell membrane) to form a lipid vesicle and then it enters the cell. After the substance enters the cell it undergoes exocytosis so that the cell membrane dissolves. This process is known as the transcytosis mechanism.
The bulk flow of fluids into and out of the capillaries is known as bulk flow. Bulk flow is capable of transporting only small lipid-insoluble substances in water. This exchange occurs due to a differential gradient and it happens in both directions (bidirectional). It depends on the net filtration pressure. When the substances flow from the blood to the interstitial fluid it is known as filtration which takes place due to the hydrostatic pressure of blood and the oncotic pressure of the interstitial fluid.
The waste substances that are released into the interstitial fluid due to the metabolic activities of the cell move from the interstitial fluid to the bloodstream it is known as reabsorption. During this transport, the reabsorption takes place due to the oncotic pressure of the blood and the hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial fluid.
The oncotic pressure is the osmotic pressure which is exerted by the proteins in the blood plasma or the interstitial fluid whereas the hydrostatic pressure is the pressure of fluid inside or outside the capillary on the wall of the capillary wall.
The net filtration pressure depends on the four forces. They are:
â€¢ Movement of substances from the bloodstream into the interstitial fluid is due to blood hydrostatic pressure and interstitial fluid oncotic pressure.
â€¢ Movement of substances from the interstitial fluid into the bloodstream is due to blood oncotic pressure and interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure.
Bulk flow in the kidneys:
In the kidneys, the blood enters into the nephrons, which is the functional unit of the kidney. Each nephron consists of a glomerulus which consists of several capillaries that are enclosed in the Bowmanâ€™s capsule. The larger molecules such as the proteins get filtered out in the Glomerulus. The blood then flows around the nephron and reaches the peritubular capillaries where reabsorption takes place. During tubular reabsorption water and other solutes are reabsorbed by extraction of the substances from the tubule into the interstitial fluid of the renal tubules and then these substances are transported from the interstitial fluid into the bloodstream.
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