The link between the intake of sodium and other diseases was calculated, and it was observed that the problem of blood pressure is related to sodium levels. It was observed that when sodium intake is high and taken in small doses, it can lead to different effects on the body. The high intake of sodium can also cause the death of an individual, and it was observed that high intakes of sodium could cause headaches and cardiovascular diseases. The upper-level intake for sodium is 2300 mg per day, and if the intake value exceeds, it will lead to adverse effects. The excess of sodium in the body is a problem for the kidney, and further water is used to dilute this excessive sodium. This will increase the amount of blood and will create more pressure on blood vessels.
The beyond the level of sodium ions may cause hypernatremia. The chances of this disease are more in individuals who remain dehydrated and do not have enough water in the body to dilute this sodium. Hypernatremia further causes other problems like brain seizures, vomiting, confusion, death, and damage to the kidney. Excess sodium can also cause severe problems like the heart’s muscles enlarging as more pressure is put on the heart’s walls. Stomach cancer and kidney stone are also developed due to hypernatremia.
The toxicity of sodium can damage the heart and kidneys.
Levels of potassium intake that causes toxicity
The adequate potassium intake should be 400 milligrams for each day for children from 0 to 6 months and 2300 milligrams per day for adults. The amount of potassium consumed per day is 5000mg per day, and an excessive amount of potassium can cause toxicity. On the other hand, an excess amount of potassium can cause gastrointestinal complications and arrhythmia. Arrhythmia is a problem where the rhythm of the heartbeat becomes irregular, and it can be either too fast or too slow.
The high amount of potassium in the body can cause a problem called hyperkalemia. People suffering from hyperkalemia can have heart attacks, and they feel fatigued. Potassium is an element that is good for muscles and nerves and is generally excreted out from the body. However, the high amount of potassium in the body is not removed, and further, it accumulates. The excess potassium accumulated in the body can cause vomiting, diarrhea, pain in the chest, and nausea. In addition, excessive amounts of potassium can lead to neuromuscular problems like paralysis, and the toxicity of potassium initially damages the kidney and damages the nerves and muscles.
Levels of calcium and vitamin D intake that causes toxicity
The AI of calcium for individuals above the age of 70 is 1300 milligrams for each day, and the AI for men and women of age between 19 and 150 is 1000 milligrams for each day. The permissible maximum intake level of calcium for adults of age 19-50 is 2500 milligrams each day, while for ages above 51, it is 2000 milligrams per day. The adequate intake of vitamin D is 15 micrograms (mcg) for individuals between the ages of 1 to 70 and 20 micrograms for individuals above 71.
The tolerable upper intake level for adults above the age of 19 is 100 mcg per day, while for children aged 4 to 8, it is 75mcg per day. Calcium toxicity is caused when the calcium level is more than required, and the deposition of extra calcium in serum leads to hypercalcemia. Hypercalcemia leads to other problems such as loss of weight, fatigue, anorexia, and arrhythmia. In addition, the excess of calcium is not filtered out by the kidney, which leads to hypercalciuria, and hypercalciuria occurs when the value of calcium exceeds 300mg per day in men and 250mg in women per day. Hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria together cause soft tissue calcification and renal failure. Hypercalciuria also leads to the development of stones in the kidneys. The toxicity of vitamin D leads to kidney problems, pain in the bone, weakness in the body, nausea, frequent urination, and vomiting. Loss of appetite, sleepiness, dry mouth, and headaches are also problems caused due to toxicity of vitamin D.
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