The scutellum is the nutrition-rich tissue of the seed that tends to provide an increased surface area to the seeds, which results in the absorption of the nutrients from the endosperms. The absorption of nutrients is essential for the germination process to make the seeds germinated appropriately. It secretes some of the essential enzymes involved in the digestion and absorption of the nutrients by the endosperm. Scutellum remains directly connected with the vascular tissues of the plants, which mediate nutrient transportation to the seed embryo. The structure acts as the pathway of movement of the food reserve resource to the growing axis. The genes located in the scutellum are highly expressive during germination for the translation of proteins to form enzymes, carbohydrate metabolism, cell cycle, and the transporters.
Morphological changes during germination: The imbibition and the germination process vacuous the morphological changes in scutellum. The size of the scutellum increases, and it gains enough weight during germination. The vascular bundles start to differentiate. Epithelial cells elongate towards the outer side and loss their adhesion to form the finger-like projections to project into the endosperm. The finger-like projections make an efficient contact area to the nutrients for digestion and absorption.
Translocation of nutrients: Peptide transporters and the nitrate transporter 1 (PTR or NTR1) is the protein (di or tripeptide) transporters present in the cell membrane of the scutellum provide the facilitation of the movement of starch to the embryo, which is carried from the endosperm. The macromolecules from the endosperm (starch and proteins) are hydrolyzed by the hydrolytic enzymes of the epithelium of scutellum to break them into simpler parts. Amino acids, peptides, and sugars produced by the breakdown of the macromolecules are then translocated to the embryo axis.
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