Some of the factors that affects/influences the formation of soil are,
1) Weathering: It can happen as physical, biological, or chemical weathering. Physical weathering breaks rocks as a result of mechanical action. Temperature changes, abrasion causes the rocks to break down. Chemical weathering breaks down rocks through chemical makeup and biological weathering is the breaking down of rocks with living things.
2) Parent materials: They are the base of soil. The type of parent materials and condition in which they break down would affect the properties of soil. Rocks through weathering and erosion from soil minerals.
3) Organism: Organism such as plants, bacteria, fungi, insects burrowing affects the formation of soil. Microorganism breaks down the litter of plant and animal waste to become organic material. This makes changes in the soil.
4) Climate: Temperature, more vegetation, faster decay, and rainfall affect the weathering and decomposition of organic matter.
5) Topography: Slopes are vulnerable to erosion and lowlands have poor drainage. The shape, grade, and length influence the drainage.
6) Time: The properties of soil would vary based on the time taken for weathering of the soil. Minerals from rocks are weathered to form materials like clay, iron, and aluminum oxides.
1) Accumulation of materials: Organic matter, decomposing materials, or new minerals are deposited by ice, water or wind, and are accumulated over course of time. This means that materials are added to the soil. This takes place in the top layer of the soil. In soils that are poorly drained, the accumulation of organic matter happens because the water logging prevents it from being oxidized or broken by soil organisms. In well-drained soils, the materials collect when they are caught up by the systems of the root.
2) Leaching: The process of removing soluble particles from the column of soil is known as leaching. As the water moves down through the soil, it takes the bases such as calcium away that are present as exchangeable ions in clay-humus complexes. By the movement of water, wind, ice, or taking up the gathered materials by plants, and the new particles comprising of clay, organic materials, or other chemical compounds are leached and taken up from the soil by plants. The physical and chemical compositions of newly gather materials along with the parent of the soil are altered.
3) Transformation: The soil particles held in suspension are washed away. The clay and other materials are washed away from the upper horizon and are deposited in the lower horizon. The soil takes a shape through a transformation that improves the composition of nutrients. In the process of illuviation, the particles of soil that are suspended are gathered. In the process of eluviation, the particles of soil that are suspended are washed away.
4) Podsolisation: The clay materials are broken down by a strong solution of soil acid, the process of podsolisation takes place. Silica, aluminum, and iron produce complexes with organic materials in the soil. These materials are eradicated from the soilâ€™s surface zone and could gather in dark subsurface layers of the soil. Upland heaths and moors comprise of podsols. The changes of the mineral precipitate that are accumulated are the reasons for the reddish and brownish colors of the various horizons.
5) Gleying: This takes place in waterlogged, anaerobic conditions when the compounds of iron are decreased and removed from the soil, separated as mottles or concretions in the soil. Gleyed soils are seen in marshy wetlands.
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