Gymnosperms are called seed plants which are adapted to live on land. These plants are autotrophic or photosynthetic organisms that are supposed to conserve water. Gymnosperm has a vascular system that serves the purpose of exchanging water and nutrients. The vascular system includes roots, phloem, and xylem. The term gymnosperm is referred to as â€œnaked seedâ€. This is the crucial discriminating factor that differentiates gymnosperms and angiosperms. Gymnosperm and angiosperm are definite branches of seed plants. The gymnospermâ€™s ovules and seeds are not developed on the enclosed chambers known as ovaries; instead, they grow on the scales present in cones. Modern gymnosperms are distinguished into four phyla. They are the Gingkophyta, the Coniferophyta, Cycadophyta, and Gnetophyta. The first three phyla are likely in their secondary cambium production. Secondary cambium is the cell that creates the vascular system of stem portions and they are partly trained for transporting water. But then these three phyla are never closely phylogenetically correlated. The fourth phylum named the Gnetophyta is the closest category to angiosperms as they generate original xylem tissue. Conifers are considered as the predominant gymnosperm phylum. This has the largest species variety. The conifers gametophytes survive their shorter nonphotosynthetic lives mostly entirely inside the wall of the spore. The parent sporophyte provides complete nutrition.
Conifers are the major category of gymnosperm plants. They form seeds without flowers or fruits. The Giant Sequoias plant that is present in North America is an incredible tree. This particular tree grows about 110 m in height and is included in this group. Till now, the conifers are the biggest group of gymnosperms which have around 630 species all over the world with a total estimate of around 860 species. The word â€˜coniferâ€™ is the Latin term defined as â€˜cone-bearingâ€™. This is due to the production of cones by the conifers, within which it generates the pollen or male cone and female cone. Every woody plant that is mostly trees and a few shrubby varieties are conifers. They have leaves which looks like needle or scale and most of their species are evergreen. This includes the pines that are economically important and many other timber species that are exploited for use in paper and construction purposes.
Like other gymnosperms, the conifers gametophytes survive their short nonphotosynthetic lives mostly entirely within the wall of the spore. The parent sporophyte produces their complete nutrition. The gametophyte of the female will not be freed from the tree before the seed attains its maturity. When the pollen gets released into the wind, the gametophyte of the male is shortly detached from the sporophyte. An immature gametophyte of the male is contained in those pollen grains. These are confined and scattered in the wall of the microspore. In the pine family, Pinaceae, three consecutive categories of the microsporangium produces a pollen grain made up of four cells, inside the microsporangium. It contains two small prothallium cells namely, a generative cell and a tube cell. The pollen tube is developed from the latter cell type, after pollination and on the other hand, the generative cell splits to produce a spermatogenous cell and a sterile cell. The spermatogenous cell further splits to generate two male gametes, before fertilization. Other conifers share the later developmental phases of the male gametophyte with the family named Pinaceae, but they differ in the prothallium cells count from one in Sciadopitys, Taxaceae, Cephalotaxus, and Cupressaceae to 40 cells in Agathis species of the Araucariaceae. Agathis has an extremely complex male gametophyte amidst the seed plants. In contrast to the ovule or megasporangium, which accommodates a solitary gametophyte of females, each microsporangium forms numerous pollen grains.
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