Types and Causes of Diabetes
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease caused due to failure of insulin action on insulin-sensitive cells such as the skeletal muscles, liver, and adipose tissue. Insulin is a hormone that regulates sugar levels in the blood by mediating glucose uptake into the cells. Uncontrolled hyperglycemia leads to the destruction of organs and impairment in the body function, including nerves and blood vessels. Diabetes is a multifactorial disease, and it occurs due to following two reasons:
Inadequate or no production or secretion of pancreatic insulin leads to glucose clearance failure, leading to hyperglycemia or diabetes. This is the primary cause of type 1 diabetes and is also known as juvenile diabetes as it appears in childhood stages. It is mainly caused due to genetic conditions and inheritance patterns. The symptoms appear suddenly in the later period and are common as type 2 diabetes. Hence, it is diagnosed only when symptoms are noticeable, and complications arise or during a routine screening test. The primary treatment for type 1 includes insulin administration on a daily basis and hence is called insulin-dependent diabetes.
In the second case, although insulin is produced sufficiently, it cannot induce glucose transport into the cells because of insulin resistance. Eventually, because of more glucose in the body, the pancreas produces more and more insulin leading to the destruction of pancreatic cells. This condition aggravates the symptoms of diabetes and leads to type 2 diabetes or diabetes mellitus. This is mainly due to lifestyle changes and increased body weight, leading to a sedentary lifestyle, lack of physical activities, overeating, and stress. The symptoms include increased thirst and appetite, dizziness, frequent urination, lethargy, blurred vision, tingling sensation in the feet and palm, and dry skin. Unlike type 1 diabetes, it is seen in middle age groups and elder populations. Type 2 diabetes treatment primarily includes an oral medication and may need insulin in the later stages.
Complications Associated with Diabetes
The complications induced by diabetes include retinopathy, nerve damage or neuropathy, nephropathy, skin infections and sepsis, hearing impairment, cardiopathy, foot damage, and cancers. These people have an increased risk of heart attacks and stroke; neuropathy leads to increased chances of foot ulcers, sepsis and may require limb amputation if not treated on time. Retinopathy leads to eye damage and blindness, where diabetes is estimated to contribute to around 2.6\%2.6% of loss of vision globally. Hyperglycemia is the major and leading cause of kidney failures and may require dialysis for lifelong. Reports clearly state that diabetic people are at a significantly higher risk of death than non-diabetic people. The fatality rate is much higher in diabetics associated with cardiovascular, cancer affected, and organ failure patients. In 2019, around 1.5 million deaths were attributed to direct causes of hyperglycemia and diabetes; however, deaths caused due to diabetes-induced complications were not included in the report. Therefore, diabetes is becoming the leading cause of reduced life expectancies. On the other hand, diabetic people are at a high risk of hypoglycemia, a sudden decrease in blood glucose levels. In this context, hypoglycemia is shown to cause sudden death in type 1 diabetic people and an enhanced risk of ischemia and sudden death in type 2 diabetic individuals. Therefore, both hyper and hypoglycemia are the potentially life-threatening causative factors of coma and death.
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